July 10, 2016 Early Maps

Nicholas de Fer Map 1718

Map 6F G4042.M5 1718 F4 Le Cours du Missisipi ou de St.Louis Fameuse Riviere del Amerique Septentrionale avue Environs de laquelle se trouve le Paris appelle Louisiane…1718 Nicolas de Fer scan of 4×5 film @ 2400 dpi in two parts and stiched together date 1-24-07

I love old maps because they tell such an incredible visual story if you know how to read them.

lake-superior-north-shore-map

Government of Canada map. North Shore of Lake Superior, 2016

This 1718 map shows Europeans knew of the Great Lakes at that time. The focus is on the rivers because those where the highways for the coureurs de bois, voyageurs and so-called “explorers” who were mostly using First Nations and Metis guides to take them along well-established routes. This 1688 map is full of details.

Franquelin 1688 reference

Modern maps from the Province of Ontario of the Ottawa River.

Ottawa River map2

2016 Province of Ontario Official Highway Map.

Ottawa River map

2016 Province of Ontario Official Highway Map

Franquelin 1688 2

1688. The Ottawa River Route

Franquelin 1688 3

1688 the Ottawa River Route showing the many portages.

Franquelin 1688 4

French River Route showing Lake Nipissing and again the many portages. Map 6F G4042.M5 1718 F4 Le Cours du Missisipi ou de St.Louis Fameuse Riviere del Amerique Septentrionale avue Environs de laquelle se trouve le Paris appelle Louisiane…1718 Nicolas de Fer scan of 4×5 film @ 2400 dpi in two parts and stiched together date 1-24-07

Sault are map

2016 Province of Ontario Official Highway Map showing North Eastern Ontario

Franquelin 1688 5

1688 Map showing the Bruce Peninsula, Lake Simcoe (L. Taranto), Portage roures into Balsam Lake.

Sault are map

2016 Province of Ontario Official Highway Map.

Franquelin 1688 6

Map 6F G4042.M5 1718 F4 Le Cours du Missisipi ou de St.Louis Fameuse Riviere del Amerique Septentrionale avue Environs de laquelle se trouve le Paris appelle Louisiane…1718 Nicolas de Fer scan of 4×5 film @ 2400 dpi in two parts and stiched together date 1-24-07

Southwestern Ontario map

 

Franquelin 1688 7

1688 Map showing the portage route from Hamilton to the Grand River and Portage routes on the Niagara River.

 

Franquelin 1688 8

The Bruce Peninsula and Toronto area. Only the major portage routes and Haudenosaunee villages are shown. There were many more portage routes and trails, not necessarily shared information with the European newcomers.

Southwestern Ontario map2

Franquelin 1688 9

1688, Lake Ontario. Note the portage routes through Five Nations homelands south of Lake Ontario.

GTA

2016 Province of Ontario Official Highway Map.

GTA smaller

2016 Province of Ontario Official Highway Map.

Franquelin 1688 10

The Great Lakes: The Big Picture. Map 6F G4042.M5 1718 F4 Le Cours du Missisipi ou de St.Louis Fameuse Riviere del Amerique Septentrionale avue Environs de laquelle se trouve le Paris appelle Louisiane…1718 Nicolas de Fer scan of 4×5 film @ 2400 dpi in two parts and stiched together date 1-24-07

Franquelin 1688 11

1688, Lake Superior and the route westward. Map 6F G4042.M5 1718 F4 Le Cours du Missisipi ou de St.Louis Fameuse Riviere del Amerique Septentrionale avue Environs de laquelle se trouve le Paris appelle Louisiane…1718 Nicolas de Fer scan of 4×5 film @ 2400 dpi in two parts and stiched together date 1-24-07

Franquelin 1688 Cape Breton

God’s Country also known as “Down Home” or “Cape Breton. Niganiche, now called Ingonish, is where my line of Doucettes is from. Because people travelled by canoe and ships the size of the waterbodies is exagerrated. The interior of the Cape Breton Highlands was virtually unknown to Europeans, but familiar hunting territory with many trails known to the Mi’kmaq and to the people of Ingonish.


Great Lakes detail from map by John Hinton, 1755, U.S. Library of Congress 2

Close-up. Map 6F G4042.M5 1718 F4 Le Cours du Missisipi ou de St.Louis Fameuse Riviere del Amerique Septentrionale avue Environs de laquelle se trouve le Paris appelle Louisiane…1718 Nicolas de Fer scan of 4×5 film @ 2400 dpi in two parts and stiched together date 1-24-07

Great Lakes detail from map by John Hinton, 1755, U.S. Library of Congress

1718 The rivers are mapped in great detail but the actual shape of interior is way off. The Forts are marked. As well as being military posts they were trading posts. 

Mitchell Reference 1755

The  Messesagues are the Mississauga. Since this was based on a much earlier French map the Northern Iroquois are shown as occupying most of Southern Ontario, but by this time the People of the Three Fires (Odawa, Mississauga and Pottawatomie) had defeated the Five Nations in serious of ferocious engagements. These Anishnaabe people pushed the Haudensaunee out of Ontario. Major battles were fought at Rama on Lake Couchiching and at the mouth of the Saugeen, as well as other places. The people of the Three Fires then moved into Southern Ontario.

Lake Ontario

Lake Ontario or Catarakui. The placing of Tegaogon (Teiagon) is not accurate. Teiagon was at Baby Point, just north of Bloor Street at the top of the east bank of the Humber River, not far from Fort Toronto. The linked lakes that now make up the Trent Canal syste are exagerrated in size, but the connections were very important. Note the portage trail between Cootes Paradise at Hamilton and the Urse or Bear River, now the Grand River and the Haudensaunee town of Quinatoua. Note also the Mohawk Trail  which connected with another trail all the way from Niagara to the Gulf of Mexico. So much for “untracked forests”! 

 


Mitchell 1755 French River route

The French River Route. 

 

Mitchell 1755 Great Lakes drainage

The Upper Grat Lakes. The Messasagues were anything but “united” with the Haudenosaunee or Iroquois. They in fact were at war and traditional enemies at that time.

Mitchell 1755 Lake Erie

Lake Erie, showing the Villages of the Mississaugas at Sarnia and the Village of the Ottawas, Wendats (Hurons), Potawatomies, as well as portage routes.

Mitchell 1755 Lake Huron

Lake Huron. 

Mitchell 1755 Lake Michigan

Lake Michigan.

Mitchell 1755 Lake Superior

Lake Superior. 

Mitchell Great Lakes 1755

Once again, the big picture.


Sanson 1650 1

The Riviere des Prairies is the Ottawa River. 

Sanson 1650 2

Lake Superior is an unknown and while James Bay is mapped in exagerrated detail, almost nothing was known about the Interior by the map makers.

Sanson 1650 3

Lake Erie and the headwaters of the Mississipi River, one trading system long before Europeans arrived.

Sanson 1650 Great Lakes

The lower Great Lakes.

Sanson 1650 Lake Superior

The Upper Great Lakes

Sanson16793

The Great Lakes.

Sanson 16792

The junction of Lakes Superior, Michigan and Huron.

Sanson 16795

The Lower Great Lakes.

 

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