Some Places of Importance Ontario Métis People

As I explore sources for mentions of Metis or Half-breed in Ontario I will post them here.

Shebahonaning (Killarney)

Shebanwanning, Georgian Bay (Killarney, Ontario), 1856 Wm Armstrong 1910 TPL

Shebanwanning, Georgian Bay (Killarney, Ontario), 1856 William Armstrong painted 1910, Toronto Public Library

In 1820 Étienne Augustin de Lamorandière and his Anishinaabe wife Josephte Saisaigonokwe settled at Shebahonaning and opened a trading post. Here is an article about the village:

18780803 GL Killarney

Globe, Aug. 3, 1878

MIKAN no. 2898404

Killarney or Shebahonaning, north shore of Lake Huron, 1853. Artist: Caddy, John Herbert, 1801-1883. Bibliothèque et Archives Canada, no d’acc R9266-72 Collection de Canadiana Peter Winkworth.

MIKAN no. 2838805

Killarney, Georgian Bay. July 22, 1881. Artist: Hall, Sydney Prior, 1842-1922. Library and Archives Canada, Acc. No. 1984-45-27 MIKAN no. 2838805

1910 TPL Killarney Hotel

1910, Toronto Public Library

1873 TPL Killarney William A Johnson

Killarney, 1873 by William A. Johnson. Toronto Public Library.

A VOYAGE ON THE GREAT LAKES

This is a description of a voyage up Lake Michigan and down to Sarnia and Port Huron. Sarnia is described as a prairie (which it was!). There are descriptions of Metis people, passenger pigeons, various First Nations villages, etc.

18370803 Washington National Intelligencer Col 1 No 2

A Voyage on The Great Lakes by Miss Martineau, Washington National Intelligencer , Aug. 3, 1837

Thomas G Bradford's 1835 map titled Michigan and the Great Lakes

Thomas G Bradford’s 1835 map titled Michigan and the Great Lakes

18370803 Washington National Intelligencer Col 1 No 3

Potawatomi in Athens, Michigan 1830

Potawatomi in Athens, Michigan 1830

18370803 Washington National Intelligencer Col 2 No 1

Mackinaw

Mackinac Island from a work by Richard Dillon , 1813

Battle for the Soul

Battle for the Soul Mètis Children Encounter Evangelical Protestants at Mackinaw Mission, 1823-1837

Keith R. Widder

“In 1823 William and Amanda Ferry opened a boarding school for Métis children on Mackinac Island, Michigan Territory, setting in motion an intense spiritual battle to win the souls and change the lives of the children, their parents, and all others living at Mackinac.Battle for the Soul demonstrates how a group of enthusiastic missionaries, empowered by an uncompromising religious motivation, served as agents of Americanization. The Ferrys’ high hopes crumbled, however, as they watched their work bring about a revival of Catholicism and their students refuse to abandon the fur trade as a way of life. The story of the Mackinaw Mission is that of people who held differing world views negotiating to create a “middle-ground,” a society with room for all.

Widder’s study is a welcome addition to the literature on American frontier missions. Using Richard White’s “middle ground” paradigm, it focuses on the cultural interaction between French, British, American, and various native groups at the Mackinac mission in Michigan during the early 19th century. The author draws on materials from the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions archives, as well as other manuscript sources, to trace not only the missionaries’ efforts to Christianize and Americanize the native peoples, but the religious, social, and cultural conflicts between Protestant missionaries and Catholic priests in the region. Much attention has been given to the missionaries to the Indians in other areas of the US, but little to this region.”

Publication Date: April 30th, 1999

http://msupress.org/books/book/?id=50-1D0-2296#.V21ClPkrJrQ

Michigan State University Press

Tshusick, an Ojibway woman by Charles Bird King,  ca 1836-44 by Rice, Rutter & Co., Philadelphia

Tshusick, an Ojibway woman by Charles Bird King, ca 1836-44 by Rice, Rutter & Co., Philadelphia

 

Kay be sen day way We Win, Ojibwe, by Eastman Johnson, 1857

Kay be sen day way We Win, Ojibwe, by Eastman Johnson, 1857

1843_drawing_of_Mission_Point_beach_at_Mackinac_Island,_Michigan

For information about the Shingwaulk Residential School at Sault Ste. Marie go to The Shingwauk Project, Algoma University College. It is illustrated with many family photographs of the students who went there:

http://www.nrsss.ca/Resource_Centre/SpanishIRS/SpanishIRS_GIRLS_July2009_wm.pdf

For more info about the Metis families of Mackinac Island please the link below. Some of the family names include Farlinger, Wachter, Lamorandiere, Hudon and Fraser. At this website you can also access a page on the Doucet DNA project. Some of the names connected with the Metis line of Doucet include Landry, Leblanc, Arsenault, Jessome and Cormier.

http://www.familyheritageresearchcommunity.org/mackinac_mtdna.html

For Manitoulin Island genealogy, go to: http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~onmanito/index.html

 

Mission Mackinaw2

“William W. Warren epitomized the mixed cultural heritage of Metis men and women living in the western Great Lakes region. Warren’s mother was Mary Cadot a Chippewa-French-Canadian woman from Madeline Island, and his father was Lyman Warren, an American fur trader from New England. Courtesy, Minnesota Historical Society, C.N.I.” Picture and quote from Battle for the Soul Mètis Children Encounter Evangelical Protestants at Mackinaw Mission, 1823-1837 for more info go to: http://msupress.org/books/book/?id=50-1D0-2296#.V21ClPkrJrQ

18370803 Washington National Intelligencer Col 2 No 2

 

Madeline La Framboise fur trader, artist date unknown

Madeline La Framboise (1780–1846), born Marguerite-Magdelaine Marcot. Successful fur trader and prominent Metis woman. For more info: http://historicwomen.tumblr.com/post/60234133396/madeline-la-framboise-1780-1846-madeline-la

 

 

18370803 Washington National Intelligencer Col 2 No 3

Numbering the Indians, Wikwemikong, Manitoulin Island, 16 August 1856 Wm Armstrong 1908

Numbering the Indians, Wikwemikong, Manitoulin Island, 16 August 1856 painted by William Armstrong 1908. Toronto Public Library. http://www.torontopubliclibrary.ca/detail.jsp?Entt=RDMDC-PICTURES-R-955&R=DC-PICTURES-R-955

18370803 Washington National Intelligencer Col 3

Ignace Cazelet, Jean-Baptiste Pare and Joseph LaForge arrived (in Sarnia) 1807-1810. It was, as Miss Martineau describes, prairie.

A remnant of prairie remains in Sarna. It is the Denis Rupert Prairie, preserved by the Sarnia Urban Wildlife Committee.

http://www.suwc.org/denis-rupert-prairie.html

prairie sarnia

Denis Rupert Prairie, Sarnia Urban Wildlife Committee.

 

Photo R. Dengler, TFN prairie

Joanne Doucette leading walk through prairie, Alderville. http://www.aldervillesavanna.ca/ Photo R. Dengler, 2015, Toronto Field Naturalists http://www.torontofieldnaturalists.org/

Photo R. Dengler, TFN

Alderville First Nations, Alderville, ON. Black oak savannah and prairie Photo R. Dengler, 2015, Toronto Field Naturalists

For more info about Sarnia’s history:

http://www.city.sarnia.on.ca/living-here/history-of-sarnia/photo-gallery

Sarnia from Space taken by Chris Hadfield, the only astronaut from Sarnia, in December 2001 Wikipedia

Sarnia from Space taken by Chris Hadfield, the only astronaut from Sarnia, in December 2001 Wikipedia

Sarnia-1870-b

Sarnia, 1870

Michigan-Gratiot-Sarnia

Bird’s Eye View of Port Huron and Gratiot, Michigan, and Sarnia, Ontario, 1867

 

z__e__sarnia_north_from_the_docks_2(lr_collection)

Sarnia looking north from the docks, uknown date

 

Mosquito

A Metis story!

Tale of mosquitoes

Globe, August 24, 1869

 

First Portage on Little River La Vase River Ontario. By John Elliott Woolford, 1778-1866. Toronto Public Library.

First Portage on Little River La Vase River Ontario. By John Elliott Woolford, 1821. Toronto Public Library.

A description of Metis in the Ottawa Valley.

Half breeds Ottawa Valley

Globe, August 24, 1869

 

Divide, Disenfranchise and Displace

In 1867, the new Canadian government moved quickly to disenfranchise First Nations who had previous to Confederation been able to vote. Canada Day was July 1 and by July 16 there were two classes of Canadians: white “grown ups” and the invisible non-voting First Nations on reserves. John A. Macdonald’s government also forced men to make a terrible choice (women did not have the vote). If you were Metis and lived in a native settlement, you had to leave or give up your right as a Canadian to vote. This could clearly be seen as a form of cultural genocide for the Metis outside of Manitoba where the situation was quite different. In essence, Ottawa would appear to be laying down an ultimatum, “Be an Indian or be white. Choose.” Be disenfranchised or displaced. One Metis named Joseph Biron is recorded as objecting in this article.

18670716 GL how Metis were forced to make a choice1

Globe, July 16, 1867

18670716 GL and how First Nations lost the right to vote2

Globe, July 16, 1867 (continued)

 

18670716 GL how Metis were forced to make a choice3

Globe, July 16, 1867

John McKay Cree Half Breed Guide to H Y Hind

John McKay, Metis, Guide to Henry Youle Hind (Scientist and Explorer)

Domenique, Squaw and Child (Rivière Moisie, Labrador Peninsula Expedition, Henry Hind, Quebec, 1861) William G. R. Hind. Toronto Public Library.

William G. R. Hind, 1861, while on an expedition to Labrador with Henry Youle Hind.

Explorers

“Follow the trail. Go that way.”

 

19090508 CDNCOUR Vol. V, No. 23 Portaging

Canadian Courier, May 8, 1909, Vol. 5, No. 23

Termination of Little River (La Vase River, Ontario) by John Elliott Woolford, 1821. Toronto Public Library.

Termination of Little River (La Vase River, Ontario) by John Elliott Woolford, 1821. Toronto Public Library.

 

THE MANITOULIN CONTROVERSY

Louis Soloman Jr. is mentioned as Metis in this article below.

18620321 GL Manitoulin Controversy Louis Soloman

Manitoulin Controversy (Louis Soloman jr) Globe, March 21, 1862

 

DIRTY VS. NICE: VOYAGEURS’ SONGS

While this articles describes how filthy the words to the voyageurs’ songs were, others describe them as charming folk songs. But, like the song’s soldiers sing when they march, there may have been one version the men used when they were on their own and one much cleaner version that they used when they had company such as important HBC or Northwest Company officials.

18411002 Weekly Chronicle (London UK) dirty songs

Weekly Chronicle (London UK), Oct. 2, 1841

To hear some of the polite songs go to:

 

18600106 GL Washinton Irving's Astoria Voyageurs

Washinton Irving, from his book Astoria in the Globe, Jan. 6, 1860

Painting by Peter Rindisbacher.

Painting by Peter Rindisbacher.

THUNDER BAY & SAULT STE MARIE

18600106 GL Washinton Irving's Astoria Thunder Bay

Washinton Irving, from his book Astoria in the Globe, Jan. 6, 1860

North West Company Post at the Grand Portage

North West Company Post at the Grand Portage

18590920 GL

Northwest Correspondence, Sept. 20, 1859

Fort Drummond, Drummond Island

Fort Drummond, Drummond Island

18590920 GL

Northwest Correspondence, Sept. 20, 1859

186900NARCH Indian settlement Sault Ste Marie

1869 Sault Ste. Marie, National Archives of Canada

 

18590628 GL McGillivray and LeRonde

McGillivray and LeRonde Metis Globe, June 28, 1859

Voyageur Boat and Chippewa Canoe Thunder Bay Lake Superior William Armstrong 1901

Voyageur Boat and Chippewa Canoe, Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, by William Armstrong 1901

 

FROM THUNDER BAY WEST

18581006 GL Half breeds Thunder Bay

Half breeds Thunder Bay, Oct. 6, 1858

 

18590628 GL To Ft Wm Col 1 no 1

Globe, June 28, 1859 (continued below)

18800000NARCH Indian encampment Thunder Bay

Indian encampment Thunder Bay, National Archives of Canada, 1880

18590628 GL To Ft Wm Col 1 no 2

19010000NARCH Miss Leronde Hudson's Bay Post Lake Nipigon

Miss Leronde Hudson’s Bay Post Lake Nipigon, 1901, National Archives of Canada

Poling up the Kam

Inscribed l.r.: “Poling up” Sketched during Red River Expedition, 1857, Toronto Public Library

18570801 TPL Ft William

Aug. 1, 1857 Inscribed l.l. to l.c.: J. Fleming del – Aug. 1857 FORT WILLLAM from South side of Kaminitiquia River / Aug. ’57; l.r.: No 2 Toronto Public Library

18560000 Kakabeka Falls, Kaministikwia River (Ontario), 1856

Enter a captionKakabeka Falls, Kaministikwia River (Ontario), 1911 by William Armstrong. Toronto Public Library.

18590628 GL To Ft Wm Col 1 no 3

18570000 TPL Kakabeka Falls, Kaministikwia River (Ontario),

Kakabeka Falls, Kaministikwia River (Ontario), by John Arnot Fleming. Toronto Public Library.

18590628 GL To Ft Wm Col 1 no 4

18570000 2nd Falls, Kaministiquia River. Ontario. By John Arnot Fleming. Toronto Public Library.

2nd Falls, Kaministiquia River, Ontario, 1857. By John Arnot Fleming. Toronto Public Library.

18590628 GL To Ft Wm Col 1 no 5

Ojibway Women

Eastman Johnson, Ojibwe Women, 1857, Permanent Collection of St. Louis County Historical Society, Duluth, Minnesota

18590628 GL To Ft Wm Col 2 no 1

Pointe de Meuron, Kaministikwia River, 1857 by Lucius O'Brien, Toronto Public Library

18590628 GL To Ft Wm Col 2 no 2

Cigarette card

Metis man, cigarette card, 1907 by John Innes

 

MANITOULIN AND MORE

This article includes a description of  jigging at Little Current, as well as Metis at the Sault. It is from the Globe, September 2, 1858

18580902 GL Excursion to TB Col 1 No 1

Shebanwanning, Georgian Bay (Killarney, Ontario), 1856 Wm Armstrong 1910 TPL

Shebanwanning, Georgian Bay (Killarney, Ontario), 1856 Wm Armstrong painted 1910, Toronto Public Library

18580902 GL Excursion to TB Col 1 No 2

Gore Bay 1910

Gore Bay, 1910

18580902 GL Excursion to TB Col 1 No 3

Robert Cunningham, reporter for Toronto Daily Telegraph, and Indians, beside canoe 1870 TPL

Photo by Robert Cunningham, reporter for Toronto Daily Telegraph, and Indians, beside canoe 1870 Toronto Public Library

Michigan_(steamboat_1833)_01

“The Michigan’, Steamboat, 1833

18580902 GL Excursion to TB Col 1 No 4

dance_metis_jig

Jigging with link

Metis Dancing. (Courtesy of the Minnesota Historical Society, 3360) Drawing by Corporal Louis Voelkerer, Company A, 31st U.S. Infantry ; Location of original is unknown. C. 1870

To see some great Metis jigging:

 

18580902 GL Excursion to TB Col 1 No 5

Lake Superior

On Lake Superior From the Toronto Public Library

18580902 GL Excursion to TB Col 2 No 2

Fort william 1811Fort William18580902 GL Excursion to TB Col 2 No 318580902 GL Excursion to TB Col 2 No 418580902 GL Excursion to TB Col 2 No 518580902 GL Excursion to TB Col 2 No 6

FISHING AT THE SAULT

18580629 GL Fishing at Sault Ste Marie

Fishing at Sault Ste Marie, Globe, June 29, 1858

Fishing_at_Saint_Mary's_River,_Sault_Sainte_Marie,_Michigan,_1901

Fishing at the Sault, 1901

19080000 Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario G.N. Bartlett, ca. 1908 Good Catch of Fish

“Good Catch of Fish” Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, G. N. Barlette ca. 1908.

18580629 GL Fishing at Sault Ste Marie2

Fishing at Sault Ste Marie, Globe, June 29, 1858

19660506 Evening News Macknaw Indian Museum

NIPISSING COUNTRY

18810106 GL Rosseau to Magnetawan first three columns18810106 GL Rosseau to Magnetawan last two columns

I will be posting the articles and images I find that might interest Metis people of Ontario here.

George Dartnell

19140117 CDMCOUR Vol. XV. No. 7 Guide at CampfireBlanket coatMerge Bright

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